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Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence.

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dc.contributor Médecins Sans Frontières, Plantage Middenlaan 14, 1018 DD Amsterdam, the Netherlands. kaz.de.jong@amsterdam.msf.org.
dc.creator de Jong, K
dc.creator Ford, N
dc.creator Kam, S
dc.creator Lokuge, K
dc.creator Fromm, S
dc.creator van Galen, R
dc.creator Reilley, B
dc.creator Kleber, R
dc.date 2008-10-14
dc.date.accessioned 2017-01-31T07:12:44Z
dc.date.available 2017-01-31T07:12:44Z
dc.identifier Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence. 2008, 2:10notConfl Health
dc.identifier 1752-1505
dc.identifier 18854026
dc.identifier 10.1186/1752-1505-2-10
dc.identifier http://hdl.handle.net/10144/40200
dc.identifier http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/handle/10144/40200
dc.identifier Conflict and Health
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.mediu.edu.my:8181/xmlui/handle/10144/40200
dc.description ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. METHODS: We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages) of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months) and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. RESULTS: 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%), round up raids (82.7%), the witnessing of torture (66.9%), rape (13.3%), and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%), arrests/kidnapping (16.9%), torture (12.9%), and sexual violence (11.6%). Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7-5.7), violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9-6.8) and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4-8.7). Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1-15.5). CONCLUSION: The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities.
dc.language en
dc.rights Archived via Open Access with thanks to Conflict and Health
dc.subject Mental health
dc.subject conflict
dc.title Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence.
dc.type Article

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