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Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley II: psychosocial impact.

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dc.creator de Jong, K
dc.creator van der Kam, S
dc.creator Ford, N
dc.creator Lokuge, K
dc.creator Fromm, S
dc.creator van Galen, R
dc.creator Reilley, B
dc.creator Kleber, R
dc.date 2008-10-14
dc.date.accessioned 2017-01-31T07:12:44Z
dc.date.available 2017-01-31T07:12:44Z
dc.identifier Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley II: psychosocial impact. 2008, 2 (1):11notConfl Health
dc.identifier 1752-1505
dc.identifier 18854027
dc.identifier 10.1186/1752-1505-2-11
dc.identifier http://hdl.handle.net/10144/40198
dc.identifier http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/handle/10144/40198
dc.identifier Conflict and Health
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.mediu.edu.my:8181/xmlui/handle/10144/40198
dc.description ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in high level of exposure to violence among the civilian population of Kashmir (India). A survey was done as part of routine programme evaluation to assess confrontation with violence and its consequences on mental health, health service usage, and socio-economic functioning. METHODS: We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts of Kashmir (India) using questionnaires adapted from other conflict areas. Analysis was stratified for gender. RESULTS: Over one-third of respondents (n=510) were found to have symptoms of psychological distress (33.3%, CI: 28.3-38.4); women scored significantly higher (OR 2.5; CI: 1.7-3.6). A third of respondents had contemplated suicide (33.3%, CI: 28.3-38.4). Feelings of insecurity were associated with higher levels of psychological distress for both genders (males: OR 2.4, CI: 1.3-4.4; females: OR 1.9, CI: 1.1-3.3). Among males, violation of modesty, (OR 3.3, CI: 1.6-6.8), forced displacement, (OR 3.5, CI: 1.7-7.1), and physical disability resulting from violence (OR 2.7, CI: 1.2-5.9) were associated with greater levels of psychological distress; for women, risk factors for psychological distress included dependency on others for daily living (OR 2.4, CI: 1.3-4.8), the witnessing of killing (OR 1.9, CI: 1.1-3.4), and torture (OR 2.1, CI: 1.2-3.7). Self-rated poor health (male: OR 4.4, CI: 2.4-8.1; female: OR 3.4, CI: 2.0-5.8) and being unable to work (male: OR 6.7, CI: 3.5-13.0; female: OR 2.6, CI: 1.5-4.4) were associated with mental distress. CONCLUSIONS: The ongoing conflict exacts a huge toll on the communities' mental well-being. We found high levels of psychological distress that impacts on daily life and places a burden on the health system. Ongoing feelings of personal vulnerability (not feeling safe) were associated with high levels of psychological distress. Community mental health programmes should be considered as a way reduce the pressure on the health system and improve socio-economic functioning of those suffering from mental health problems.
dc.language en
dc.rights Archived via Open Access with thanks to Conflict and Health
dc.subject mental health
dc.subject conflict
dc.title Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley II: psychosocial impact.
dc.type Article

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