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Sustaining Access to Antiretroviral Therapy in the Less-Developed World: Lessons from Brazil and Thailand.

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dc.contributor Médecins Sans Frontières, 522 Mooban Nakorn Thai 14, Ladphrao Soi 101/1, Bangkok 10240, Thailand. nathan.ford@london.msf.org
dc.creator Ford, N
dc.creator Wilson, D
dc.creator Costa Chaves, G
dc.creator Lotrowska, M
dc.creator Kijtiwatchakul, K
dc.date 2007-07
dc.date.accessioned 2017-01-31T07:09:56Z
dc.date.available 2017-01-31T07:09:56Z
dc.identifier Sustaining Access to Antiretroviral Therapy in the Less-Developed World: Lessons from Brazil and Thailand. 2007, 21 Suppl 4:S21-9 AIDS
dc.identifier 0269-9370
dc.identifier 17620749
dc.identifier 10.1097/01.aids.0000279703.78685.a6
dc.identifier http://hdl.handle.net/10144/19975
dc.identifier http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/handle/10144/19975
dc.identifier AIDS (London, England)
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.mediu.edu.my:8181/xmlui/handle/10144/19975
dc.description ANTIRETROVIRAL ROLLOUT IN BRAZIL AND THAILAND: Brazil and Thailand are among few developing countries to achieve universal access to antiretroviral therapy. Three factors were critical to this success: legislation for free access to treatment; public sector capacity to manufacture medicines; and strong civil society action to support government initiatives to improve access. LOCAL PRODUCTION OF AFFORDABLE, NON-PATENTED DRUGS: Many older antiretroviral drugs are not patented in either country and affordable generic versions are manufactured by local pharmaceutical institutes. EFFORTS TO ENSURE ACCESS TO EXPENSIVE, PATENTED DRUGS: Developing countries were not required to grant patents on medicines until 2005, but under US government threats of trade sanctions, Thailand and Brazil began doing so at least ten years prior to this date. Brazil has used price negotiations with multi-national pharmaceutical companies to lower the price of newer patented antiretrovirals. However, the prices obtained by this approach remain unaffordable. Thailand recently employed compulsory licensing for two antiretrovirals, obtaining substantial price reductions, both for generic and brand products. Following Thailand's example, Brazil has issued its first compulsory license. LESSONS LEARNED: Middle-income countries are unable to pay the high prices of multinational pharmaceutical companies. By relying on negotiations with companies, Brazil pays up to four times more for some drugs compared with prices available internationally. Compulsory licensing has brought treatment with newer antiretrovirals within reach in Thailand, but has resulted in pressure from industry and the US government. An informed and engaged civil society is essential to support governments in putting health before trade.
dc.language en
dc.rights Published by Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins - Archived on this site by kind permission Wolters Kluwer
dc.title Sustaining Access to Antiretroviral Therapy in the Less-Developed World: Lessons from Brazil and Thailand.

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